Glossary

self-awareness – the ability to reflect on and accurately assess one’s behaviors and skills as they are manifested in interactions

self-deception - when one lies to oneself; the active misrepresentation of reality in one’s mind

Prozac leadership – coined by David Collinson, symbolizes a social addiction to excessive positivity, suggests that positivity can resemble an addictive drug that might prevent critical self-reflection

authentic leadership – a leader who is confident in their morality and ethics and displays that to followers through engagement, builds trusting relationships with followers and peers through open communication and clear articulation of their values and beliefs

transformational leadership - treat their followers individually, they coach and advise them, instilling in them a sense of mission in their professional lives, preparing their followers for the long-term success of the firm and the development of the follower as a professional

charismatic leadership - energetic, self-confident, and determined, with strong verbal skills and high intellect, visionaries, self-sacrificing for their followers, who provide decisive leadership

transactional leadership - more interested in the immediate gratification associated with instantaneous transactions, they reward performance and take corrective action immediately

emotional intelligence - prerequisite for self-awareness in a leader, it is one’s knowledge and management of their own emotions and their knowledge and management of the emotions of others in handling relationships

self-efficacy – self-awareness and self-esteem; self-efficacy increases confidence and persistence

upward feedback – part of the 360-degree feedback process, leaders receive perceptions from direct reports

beneffactance – beneficence (doing good) plus effectance (competence), the perception of responsibility for desired behavior but not undesired outcomes

groupthink - a method that enables team members to wholeheartedly agree with the consensus of the group by allowing individual members to set aside their doubts about a decision or the process used to reach that decision

diplomatic selfhood – diplomats normally exhibit high self-awareness, they are highly attached to the state whereas the state becomes a part of themselves

Action Learning – leadership development programs that send leaders out of the classroom and into the field to tackle actual organizational issues with colleagues

Dark Triad – studied by Delroy Paulhaus and Kevin Williams, consists of Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy

Machiavellian – characterized by a manipulative personality

narcissism – self-centered, egocentric, fascinated with oneself

Truth-Default Theory – when humans communicate with each other, their default is to presume that the other person is being honest, from an evolutionary perspective, the presumption of honesty precludes efficient communication, this presumption makes humans vulnerable to occasional deceit

compartmentalization - part of the mind pigeon-holing information, one part of the mind operating with a certain degree of autonomy from others

Cognitive Dissonance Theory - individuals are forced to rationalize to themselves the difference between their behavior and their views about ethicality

bounded ethicality – notion that someone surrounded by data chooses to capture information that easily answers their question, the information they choose may not be the data that would best answer the question but more easily answers it

confirmation bias – coping mechanism a leader may employ to deal with information that runs counter to their goals and beliefs, seeking out and accepting evidence that confirms their desired views and outcomes

blind spot – impending danger that one could see if one only adjusted their input, leaders have blind spots when they do not actively seek out sources of feedback or adjust their openness to receiving information

bounded awareness – systematically failing to see information that is relevant, exclude important information from one’s decision calculus

responsibility equation – term coined by anthropologist Robert Trivers to describe someone projecting some of the blame onto others while realizing they must accept at least a portion of the blame

psychological numbing – self-deception, while boosting one’s self-esteem, can have a cumulative, detrimental effect if it becomes a habit; if one repeatedly rationalizes self-deception as a means to preserve oneself, this activity can become routinized

expert snare – the deceiver wants their target to think they know more than they know, to feel like they have some expert knowledge that most people don’t, their target becomes overconfident and self-deceives, thinking they have knowledge that they don’t

dominance theory – describes the accepted social norms and the obligations people have in monitoring violations of those norms, those at the top are motivated to monitor the activities of those at the bottom to prevent them from cheating to encroach on their material wealth

person-organization fit – a person that can fill the job requirements and mesh with the organization’s culture, congruence is realized between an employee’s beliefs, values, and ethics and that of the organization and their mission, the organization benefits from positive work outcomes